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Displaced Coccyx

Displaced tail bone

The coccyx is made up of three vertebra that sit at the bottom of the spine. For most people they are totally insignificant but these three bones are generally fused together and rarely move unless one has an unfortunate accident such as slipping downstairs or slipping on ice.

When this happens there is generally a sharp pain followed by a persistent pain of varying intensity around the base of the spine. When damaging the coccyx due to a fall, most often the coccyx is pushed forwards and it’s a simple but uncomfortable operation to pull it back into place.

The coccyx can also be displaced during childbirth where it is more typically displaced backwards or to the

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Cloacal Exstrophy

A rare birth defect

Cloacal Exstrophy* is a rare birth defect involving the pelvic area that is termed a malformation sequence and involves the cloaca** and occurs once in every 250000 births. While it can affect girls or boys, in boys, they are typically born without a penis and/or other defects.

This can be so severe that it usually makes adequate reconstruction of the male genitalia difficult if not impossible, and gender reassignment has been performed over the past few decades with many boys born without a penis being converted surgically into females soon after birth. Their diminished phalluses were removed and reconstructed as vaginas; their parents encouraged to raise them as girls, but this has had unfortunate psychological consequences.

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