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Horses in Ancient India

An archaeological doubt not only being proved, but expanded to chariots and other technology

Etruscan chariot 600 BC

Horse and chariot remains have been found in India dating to 4000 BC upsetting mainstream archaeologists who say that the earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, dating to approximately 3500–4000 BC. By 3000 BC with most irrefutable evidence of domestication from sites where horse remains were interred with chariots in graves of the Sintashta and Petrovka cultures c. 2100 BC. They believe that domestication of horses only in central Asia prior to 3500 BC and that horses never set foot in India until around 1600 BC. In the Vedas, mention of horses and cars (chariots) is in a common language indicating common use over a long period.

According to some Christian sources, God created the world in 4004 BC. There are various interpretations of this date but this idea still permeates and influences modern day Western thinking. In terms of archaeology and the story of human evolution, nothing could have existed before this date so the billions of years of antiquity have been compressed to fit within this narrative. Modern science of course tells us that our planet is several billion years old, a much more sensible interpretation that is also in accord with the ancient Rishi's of India. Yet for all the glorification of Western civilisation, its science and technology which originated in India, there is a steadfast refusal to acknowledge India as the birthplace of modern civilisation.

The horse debate

Mainstream archaeologists contention is that the Horses were brought in by Aryans invading into India, but the Aryan debate has been disproved. There never was any Aryan invasion or significant migration into India. It is now thought that the lighter skin colour of North India and of Europe came from a genetic mutation affecting melanin production about ten thousand years ago. It has been established that these people, perhaps because of their fair skin and sea level rise migrated north and west causing the European pale complexion that was biologically important because it allowed for a greater absorption of vitamin D from sunlight.

The horse debate is a small chapter within the larger picture of human evolution and adding to the increasing amount of evidence showing that India was the seat of all civilisations. The out of Africa theory about human migration has been laid to rest and it seems likely there were three or perhaps four major population groups; Africa, India and East Asia. It is now being thought that for the past sixty thousand years or so, these three major groups have been in communication with each other sharing ideas and technology.

It is also thought that from about forty thousand years ago, irrationality emerged and the Indian people began inventing gods to support human well-being and to understand the cosmos and this technology led to the development of the Indus Valley civilisation which has now been dated to 9,500 BC. So before getting back to the horse debate, let's review some of the other hotly debated topics:

  • Attirampakkam, a 1.8 Million year old site near Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
  • Civilisation at seventy-five thousand BC when Mount Toba erupted.
  • Lion man statue found in Germany
  • Dwaraka is dated Thirty thousand years old and sunk with sea level rise circa by 5000 BC.
  • Axial precession and heavenly constellations known (a 26000 year cycle)
  • Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu is dated about twenty thousand years ago and sunk with sea level rise circa by 5000 BC.
  • IVC to 9,500 BC
  • Ramayana is factual and dated ~ 7000 BC
  • Proof of Hindus in Australia ~ 4000 BC
  • Lord Krishna born ~ 3102 BC
  • Oldest Murugan temple in Pondicherry is dated around 4000 BC.
  • Tamil sites in Arikkamedu, Adichanallur dated about 3000 BC.
  • Sanauli Chariot Find 4000 Years Harappan Horse

Vedic References to the horses

  1. Slight us not Varuṇa, Aryaman, or Mitra, Ṛbhukṣan, Indra, Āyu, or the Maruts, When we declare amid the congregation the virtues of the strong Steed, God-descended.
  2. What time they bear before the Courser, covered with trappings and with wealth, the grasped oblation, The dappled goat goeth straightforward, bleating, to the place dear to Indra and to Pūṣan.
  3. Dear to all Gods, this goat, the share of Pūṣan, is first led forward with the vigorous Courser, While Tvaṣṭar sends him forward with the Charger, acceptable for sacrifice, to glory.
    4 When thrice the men lead round the Steed, in order, who goeth to the Gods as meet oblation, The goat precedeth him, the share of Pūṣan, and to the Gods the sacrifice announceth.
  4. Invoker, ministering priest, atoner, fire-kindler Soma-presser, sage, reciter, With this well ordered sacrifice, well finished, do ye fill full the channels of the rivers.
  5. The hewers of the post and those who carry it, and those who carve the knob to deck the Horse’s stake; Those who prepare the cooking-vessels for the Steed, may the approving help of these promote our work.
  6. Forth, for the regions of the Gods, the Charger with his smooth back is come my prayer attends him. In him rejoice the singers and the sages. A good friend have we won for the Gods’ banquet.
  7. May the fleet Courser’s halter and his heel-ropes, the head-stall and the girths and cords about him. And the grass put within his mouth to bait him,—among the Gods, too, let all these be with thee.
  8. What part of the Steed’s flesh the fly hath eaten, or is left sticking to the post or hatchet, Or to the slayer’s hands and nails adhereth,—among the Gods, too, may all this be with thee.
  9. Food undigested steaming from his belly, and any odour of raw flesh remaining, This let the immolators set in order and dress the sacrifice with perfect cooking.
  10. What from thy body which with fire is roasted, when thou art set upon the spit, distilleth, Let not that lie on earth or grass neglected, but to the longing Gods let all be offered.
  11. They who observing that the Horse is ready call out and say, the smell is good; remove it; And, craving meat, await the distribution,—may their approving help promote labour.
  12. The trial-fork of the flesh-cooking caldron, the vessels out of which the broth is sprinkled, The warming-pots, the covers of the dishes, hooks, carving-boards,—all these attend the Charger.
  13. The starting-place, his place of rest and rolling, the ropes wherewith the Charger’s feet were fastened, The water that he drank, the food he tasted,—among the Gods, too, may all these attend thee.
  14. Let not the fire, smoke-scented, make thee crackle, nor glowing caldron smell and break to pieces. Offered, beloved, approved, and consecrated,—such Charger do the Gods accept with favour.
  15. The robe they spread upon the Horse to clothe him, the upper covering and the golden trappings, The halters which restrain the Steed, the heel-ropes,—all these, as grateful to the Gods, they offer.
  16. If one, when seated, with excessive urging hath with his heel or with his whip distressed thee, All these thy woes, as with the oblations’ ladle at sacrifices, with my prayer I banish.
  17. The four-and-thirty ribs of the. Swift Charger, kin to the Gods, the slayer’s hatchet pierces. Cut ye with skill, so that the parts be flawless, and piece by piece declaring them dissect them.
  18. Of Tvaṣṭar’s Charger there is one dissector,—this is the custom-two there are who guide him. Such of his limbs as I divide in order, these, amid the balls, in fire I offer.
  19. Let not thy dear soul burn thee as thou comest, let not the hatchet linger in thy body. Let not a greedy clumsy immolator, missing the joints, mangle thy limbs unduly.
  20. No, here thou diest not, thou art not injured: by easy paths unto the Gods thou goest. Both Bays, both spotted mares are now thy fellows, and to the ass’s pole is yoked the Charger.
  21. May this Steed bring us all-sustaining riches, wealth in good kine, good horses, manly offspring. Freedom from sin may Aditi vouchsafe us: the Steed with our oblations gain us lordship!Rig Veda Book 1. Chapter XLXII, Source: Ralph Griffith’s translation of the Rig Veda.

Due to India having such a huge population, many archaeological sites are buried under cities and towns yet we have emerging such a wealth of new information supported by the oral and written history that is also being proven as factual. The Western world likes to be seen as being first, as more important but there is a long way to go before India is acknowledged as the home of civilisation and a great deal of unpleasant karma is addressed.

Physical remains of the horse in Indus-Sarasvati sites
Our first surprise is that contrary to conventional assertions, quite a few archaeologists have reported horse remains from India’s prehistoric sites. A. Ghosh’s respected and authoritative Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology mentions without fuss:

In India the … true horse is reported from the Neolithic levels at Kodekal [dist. Gulbarga of Karnataka] and Hallur [dist. Raichur of Karnataka] and the late Harappa levels at Mohenjo-daro (Sewell and Guha, 1931) and Ropar and at Harappa, Lothal and numerous other sites. … Recently bones of Equus caballus have also been reported from the proto-Harappa site of Malvan in Gujarat.

Mortimer Wheeler, a flamboyant proponent of the Aryan invasion theory if ever there was one, admitted long ago that “it is likely enough that camel, horse and ass were in fact a familiar feature of the Indus caravan.” The well- known archaeologist B. B. Lal refers to a number of horse teeth and bones reported from Kalibangan, Ropar, Malvan and Lothal. Another senior archaeologist, S. P. Gupta, adds further details on those finds, including early ones. In the case of Lothal, the archaeozoologist Bhola Nath certified the identification of a tooth; he also made similar observations regarding bones from Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.

Published in the Journal of Indian History and Culture of the C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar Institute of Indological Research, Chennai, September 2006, No.13, pp. 33-59. The horse-debate

By NZYogi

 

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