India is often overlooked or even dismissed as unimportant in
the worlds history books, yet new evidence is revealing her to be the mother of what we call modern civilisation.
Here on this page, history is being re-written from earth science, emerging discoveries
in archaeology, ancient texts, linguistics and genetics.
Like many people seeking to know the truth of our existence, I have questioned
the historic narrative handed down to us through various governmental agencies
to find it has been heavily tainted by political expediency,
personal bias and belief systems. (See the history of how we learn history)
In our current age, a Western materialist point of view in the guise of
patriarchal capitalism dominates the world in pursuit of individual pleasure. History instead
of being an important aspect of our search for truth and enabling our evolution is
primarily used to obfuscate important truths, justify bad behaviour, draw
national borders and facilitate the exercise of
Under the Western flexible morality, people say nice things and rule but do dastardly deeds
for power and profits. Corporatism flourishes and the people are denied access
to untainted spiritual knowledge so they remain slaves to an immoral and corrupt
Conversely in the East, Dharma was established to guide the people into eternity
as co-creators. Ones reason for being was truth and enlightenment, to
live an inclusive spiritual life of celebration without need of borders. That
life of Dharma was tainted by those who chose materialism over spirituality, a
sense of spirituality who's last bastion became modern India.
After the occupation of India some 1400 years ago, Dharma declined rapidly to be
almost wiped out by the European plunderers yet the Westerners seeking
betterment discovered their own spiritual longing. The religions handed to them
were found corrupt and all hearts turned to India for guidance.
Yet as a new wave of genuine spirituality emerges around the globe, as people
seek freedom and rights for all life, India remains mired in the mess inherited
by the British.
By believing in a false narrative as many Hindus do today, they are dis-empowered
and sucked into the Western, patriarchal capitalist system where they turn aside
from Dharma and celebrating life to be co-conspirators in not only
the dismantling of India but in increasing suffering and destabilizing the
For some time now I have seen that civilisation emerged from the general region
of India where perhaps 30,000 years ago people were coming together,
understanding that being happy was more important than power and possessions.
They questioned their place in the cosmos and learned things that today's
most technologically equipped scientists are only just learning, confirming or
yet to comprehend.
In analysis, the 'out of Africa theory' for humanities existence has fallen over
and it seems that 'modern humans' perhaps evolved from the mixing between various 'pre modern humans' meaning that the continental features we see on
people's faces in our modern world may well be indigenous.
Would you rather live in
ignorance and believe what you are told even what wrong? This page is a work in progress and occasionally updated. You
are welcome to contribute/contact via my facebook page
and a pdf of this page can be downloaded here though there may
be a few differences.
Please note that all references to "Hindu" relate to the geographic region of
greater India, not any belief system as essentially Hindus are non believers and
the testimony of Vedanta represents the original science within Sanatana Dharma
that the world has misconstrued.
Are you content to believe without proof?
Geographically, about 90 million years ago India rifted away from Madagascar and
began its relatively (in tectonic plate speeds) rapid movement northward, ultimately closing the Tethys Sea, colliding
with Asia between 55 and 50 million years ago to commence creation of the
Himalayas. The Deccan Traps began forming 66.25 million years ago, at the end of
the Cretaceous period. The bulk of the volcanic eruption occurred along the Western Ghats some 66 million years ago. This series of eruptions may have lasted
about 30,000 years.
Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back over two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic
hominid site in the Soan River valley. Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal - is this a precursor to the IVC?
Note that stone with good fracture qualities--such as flint, jasper, and chert--was not always as readily available in Asia as it was elsewhere in the world.
Asian populations, therefore, depended on coarse-grained quartz, volcanic tuff, and petrified wood, none of which lends itself to fine tool fabrication.
Madrasian Culture sites have been found in Attirampakkam located near Chennai (formerly known as Madras), Tamil Nadu. Tools related to this culture have been found at various other locations in this region. Bifacial handaxes and cleavers are typical assemblages recovered of this culture. Flake tools, microliths and other chopping tools have also been found. Most of these tools were composed of the metamorphic rock quartzite. The stone tool artefacts in this assemblage have been identified as a part of the second inter-pluvial period in India.
Evidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology in Tamil Nadu. (Acheulean artifacts from Africa have been dated to 1.6 million years ago. The oldest Acheulean sites in India are only slightly younger than those in Africa..)
700,000 - 125,000BC
Bhimbetka and Daraki-Chattan Capules which constitute the oldest prehistoric art ever discovered dated to around 700,000 BC
A skull fragment found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicates that this part of Indian subcontinent might have been inhabited around 300,000 years ago. Anek R. Sankhyan describes it as "debated and conveniently interpreted as "evolved" Homo erectus or "archaic human".
Bhimbetka shelters in the foothills of the Vindhyan Mountains on the southern edge of the central Indian plateau were inhabited by Homo erectus with rock art adding to the Daraki-Chattan Capules.
Technology similar to contemporary artefacts found used by Homo sapiens in Africa found in Jwalapuram is an archaeological site in the Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, southern India, which shows hominid habitation before and after the Toba eruption event (dates for this event vary between 75000 and 7300 BC)
"The Jwalapuram Locality 22 preserves more than 1600 stone artefacts, many agricultural assigned to the Indian Middle Palaeolithic identifying the behavioural and environmental adaptations of the hominin group(s) that occupied India when Toba erupted." ~ archaeologist Michael Haslam, MyIndiaMyGlory.
Narmada Valley harboured pre-historic human settlements, possibly pre-Harappan
'civilisation' including the only pre-modern human fossil known in Asia.
The house mouse dependent on agricultural activity begins to migrate out of India.
Narasimha idol found in Germany carbon dated to 35000 BC
The Hindu sense of cosmology claims that our entire universe is alive, it is born and dies over and over. They knew about 26,000 year cycle we call axial precession implying a continuous knowledge over as many years. Although it is possible it was later calculated, 30k BC is a likely date that what we call Hindu civilisation was beginning to evolve.
"Trade between India, Tibet and Persia 35K BC" ~
Possible first gold crafted as Kalpa Vigraha, a Vishnu Idol circa 26000 BC It
seems at this time that there were likely pockets of civilisation across the
region of greater India with travel and communication. People were likely
wondering what the purpose of life was and observed the emotive states
(happiness, joy, sadness et cetera) and sought some way of control so that
they could be always happy. They had probably been thinking on this for some
time and observing the phenomenon of life taking steps to ensure a full belly
and protection from the extremes of nature and of course dangerous animals.
At some time in this period or perhaps earlier, the first yogi appeared and
the people came to understand that there are only two directions of life,
inwards and outwards but the two affected each other.
17000+ Years Unbroken Indian Civilization
with Nilesh Oak
Spending time looking inwards and in a sense being there (meditation) gave rise to a deep sense of joy and happiness and this became part of the enculturation process.
Those equipped with self-knowledge looked at the material world and over the millennia helped to improve life for people and ways of living. Sanatana Dharma was being born and the accumulating knowledge was being passed on through schools employing rote learning.
Paleolithic industries in South India Tamil Nadu
First confirmed semi permanent settlements in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh.
Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are thought to be approximately 30,000 years old.
The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements and some of its major civilisations.
Silk Road trade route between China and all points west with the Oxus river and
The Wakhan Corridor as central,
(Alexander's Lost World part six).
A plant similar to rice has been dated to India at this time.
End of Kali Yuga - start of ascending Dwapara Yuga and the demise of the
Neanderthals who's dna remains in Hindu and other populations.
23,720 years BCE - The Rig Veda composed ?
14776 BC. Peak of last Satya Yuga
Birth of Shiva the first yogi and commencement of the Vedic era
The composition of the astronomical text Surya Siddhanta. Nilish Oak again
explains how the age of this ancient texts has been calculated and the
discrepancies in some of the earlier historical reckoning.
Given that this is not an introduction to astronomy but an advanced text
indicates that the level of knowledge is indicative of a settled civilisation
with a strong multigenerational heritage?
It is said that the suptarishies went to all corners of the earth and if they are direct students of Shiva as the first yogi who according to legend lived around
15,000 BC, one of them went to the Americas where we find many cultural similarities as in ancient India. The Tamils of course have a reputation as being great seafarers.
As far as known, Hindu culture was matriarchal and the culture of creating deities or gods prevalent.
Matriarchal cultures are about coexistence with nature and creating conditions for future generations to flourish.
"As no clear record remains from before 9500 BC, perhaps we can imagine a collection of villages and towns covering the region of north-east Bharatha interconnected by foot paths and waterways. The people would have been farming, collecting wild food and hunting. They would be experimenting with different lifestyles and under the influence of the wandering yogis, becoming more accepting of the unpredictability of life.
Beginnings of agriculture:
"Evidence of rice ostensibly being used as food on the banks of Lahuradewa lake in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The area, located in the Sant Kabir Nagar District, has been in the limelight for over two decades now thanks to the discovery of rice cultivation from the mid-7th millennium (i.e., 6000s) BCE, carbonised rice grains dating as far back as ~11,000 BCE, and micro-charcoal particles and Cerealia pollen, providing evidence of human activity and some form of slash-and-burn agriculture in the region from at least 13,000 BCE". ~ India Facts
India did not exist in isolation, there had been a trade in objects and ideas over thousands of years before now. Hindlogists see related motifs in the artwork at Gobekli Tepe.
We should remember that the entire region from India to the Mediterranean was much wetter and even the Sinai was a mixture of forests and grasslands as North Africa was a mix of savanna, forests and great Lakes.
The Origin of Sanatana Dharma
We don't know when but there must have been a shift in consciousness from
which Sanatana Dharma and democracy were born. It seems likely that following
the revelations of Shiva the first Yogi said to be in this 12-15,000 year BC
period that he unveiled the technology of being human and the concept of
Ardhanareeshvara that symbolizes male and female principles cannot be
separated. It conveys the unity of opposites in the universe. The male half
stands for Purusha and female half is Prakriti and they cannot exist separate
from each other.
He dwelt for some time in the Ardhanareeshvara - 0 state then shared the
understanding of what he had realised and described how everyone could
appreciate that state from which not only all life evolved but from where an
endless supply of joy and happiness also emerged. This is perhaps better
understood in numerals. We are all numbers 1-9 and the Hindus discovered 0 -
zero without which the numbers 1-9 do not have any real identity except in
contrast or other numbers and without which it's improbable to know joy as the
most basic happiness is conditional on the cooperation of other numbers.
As 0 - zero provides certainty of identity of numbers, knowing the absolute
through meditation releases soma along with wisdom to resolve life challenges.
When enough had touched the absolute and understood, they saw a need for
everyone to live wholesomely and Sanatana Dharma evolved to give everyone the
opportunity to touch the absolute and to live equitably.
It's though that societies were matriarchal, the economy reflecting communal
living and satisfying needs of survival.
It is said that the suptarishies, the direct students of Shiva as the first
yogi went to all corners of the earth and one of them went to the Americas
where we find many cultural similarities as in ancient India. The Tamils of
course have a reputation as being great seafarers and the point made by
Vedveer Arya: " According to KD Abhyankar, the star Agastya (Canopus) was
known to Indians since the Rig Vedic period. The star Agastya became visible
for the first time in India at KanyAkumari around 10,000 BCE, at Chennai
around 8500 BCE, at Hyderabad 7200 BCE, in the Vindhya region around 5200 BCE
and at Delhi around 3100 BCE.
The epoch of the Puranic story about Agastya who crossed the Vindhya Mountain
cannot be later than 5000 BCE. Thus, the history of the 197 Pandyan kings of
the Sangam period ought to have begun around 5000 BCE and the first Pandyan
king may have belonged to the era of the Ramayana i.e. 5100 - 5000 BCE" ~ The
Chronology of Ancient India by Subhash Kak.
Mr. Arcio Nuns, a Brazilian nuclear scientist
claims the Dravidians of Asia entered the Americas. This is supported by the
find of petroglyphs at Ratnagiri on the Konkan coast of Maharashtra.
Dated to around 10,000
BCE by the Maharashtra State Archaeology Department. Some of these
12,000-year-old petroglyphs depict astrological symbols used for the
Aquarius and Pisces constellations, others depict sacred symbols like the
Winged Scarab and others used by many ancient cultures as well as images
resembling hippos and kangaroos indicating oceanic contacts with Africa and
The Sarasvati Civilization (Indus Valley Civilization) begins as we are discovering though it's
likely the roots stretch back many thousands of years. The civilization used an early form of the Indus signs, the so-called Indus script.
Over the course of next 8000 years, inhabitants of the Civilization developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, tin and iron) had elaborate urban planning, baked brick houses, efficient drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.
The civilization depended significantly on trade, was the first civilization to use wheeled transport in form of bullock carts, and also used boats.
The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan, much of northern India, and large parts of Afghanistan, covering a region of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban planning and sewage systems.
The commencement of natural desertification hastened by agriculture and the use of wood for brickmaking and metal smelting - copper.
The city of Mehrgarh existed - with a large city of about 30,000 persons - showing evidence ofthe world's first dental drilling of tooth decay (approximately 7,000 to 9,000 years ago) has been found in Merhgarh, as well as the first use of cotton fiber (6th millennium BC).
Possibly the end of the Rig Veda era and the emergence of patriarchal
"Avesta was the beginning of a great split in the ancient
Vedic thought that arose on the banks of the river Saraswati. This split was
recorded in the ancient Puranic literature of India, as the conflict between
the Devas and the Asuras. It was an ideological fault-line,
that divided the same tribe of people into two - a group of people who
believed in the immortality of Atman (the soul, which is not body) and the
others who believed in the mortality of the body and its need for the final
resurrection and revival to become immortal. The first group identified
themselves with the immortal Atman and cared nothing about
the perishable body. The second group identified themselves with the mortal
body and were constantly engaged in its prolonged preservation and its final
resurrection." ~ http://takshasila.wikidot.com/
In other words, Avesta represented materialism while Vedanta represented
spirituality and the creation of heaven on earth. Avesta represented the
biblical fall from grace and expulsion from the Garden of Eden and gave rise
to patriarchal capitalism - a drive seeking pleasure and avoidance of fear,
antagonistic to the welfare of life and those seeking
Patriarchal capitalism (spread by
Noah's flood) created the belief systems we are familiar with
today featurng transient civilisations and perpetual conflict, India however would
remain matriarchal and the worlds longest continuous civilisation although
corrupted but resistant to efforts to destroy it.
This is also when it's thought that tribes from India migrated west to Europe
and the beginning of the Indo-European languages along with spread of
patriarchal capitalism that suited those having difficulty conceiving the
Patriarchal capitalism is suited to acquiring pleasure, antagonistic to the
welfare of life and especially to those seeking liberation. As those embracing
the physical and furthered patriarchal capitalism giving rise to transient
civilisations and perpetual conflict, India however would remain matriarchal
and the worlds longest continuous civilisation corrupted but resistant to
efforts to destroy it during the modern era.
The submersion of Dwarka as sea levels rose and the covering of the continental shelf
(Great flood stories). The area between South India and Sri Lanka was
The author of this page in light of the recent Sanauli Chariot discovery leans towards a time period nearer that claimed by R. N. Iyengar and P. R. Sarkar.
Migrations from India to the Mediterranean and beyond.
Perhaps the Kurukshetra War created a rift in Hindu culture or perhaps it was the arrival of capitalism combined with a
patriarchal mentality returning to India with traders that began to undermine the sense of Dharma?
The first domestication of elephants.
We don't know when Manu created his laws but he talks about possessions, human rights and of course money which as far as we know began to
emerge at this time.
This idicates that India was strongly influenced by patriarchal capitalism.
The Life of Lord Rama 5114 BC (vifindia.org).
Is it that there was also a clan perhaps named after Lord Rama
who over time became the Rajputs, coined the name Rajasthan and a Rama man became the Egyptian Ramsees?
According to scholars and the evidences across Iraq and Iran, the Rama clan ruled extensively and were influential in the development of Egyptian culture (Ramses). This image is one of many similar found across the region of greater Persia said to symbolise Lord Rama.
Creation of The Laws of Manu History and Influence of Law Code of Manu.
End of descending Treta Yuga and commencement
of the descending Dwarpara Yuga
By one theory, this is the beginning of the Kali Yuga? with a duration of 432,000 years, leaving us with 427,000 years until the end of the present age. This theory is
less widely accepted.
Seaward travel east from India and either seafarers stranded in Australia or migrants settled and mixed with the local inhabitants as per modern genetic evidence.
The Saraswati river begins to diminish causing westward migrations and Hindu influence in Egypt - probably two way trade in ideas and technology.
Tamil DNA appears in Australian Aboriginals indicating Tamil travel and trade.
The original Sun Temple at Multan is said to have been built by Samba, son of Krishna.
Commencement of Copper - Bronze age in India although this may have been earlier (Hindustan Times)
Cotton growing becomes widespread in South America - indicating trade across the Pacific
as India was home to cotton.
End of descending Dwarpara Yuga and
commencement of the descending Kali Yuga.
By another and most accepted theory matching axial precession and our movement through the constellations, the Kali Yuga began:
"in 3140 BCE, the Kurukshetra War ended, and in 3102 BCE, Krishna left his body. Three to four months after the war, the Kali Yuga began.
As of 2012 AD, Krishna's era ended 5,114 years ago. If you subtract 2592, which is the cumulative number of years of the two Kali Yugas that are at the bottom of the ellipse which describes the axial precession, you arrive at 2522 years. That means we have already completed 2522 years of Dwapara Yuga, and since its total duration is 2592 years, we still have
62 years until its completion.
In the year 2082, we will complete Dwapara Yuga and move on to Treta Yuga." ~ Sadhguru.
Hindu settlement exists at Shortugai (near Bactria or Bactra as is sometimes spelt) on the Oxus River (Amu Darya) on trade route between China and all points west with the Oxus river navigable to the Mediterranean (and Aral, Caspian and Black Sea ports). Perhaps for lapis lazuli, wool, gold, silver, copper, bronze, tin, lead, herbs and spices on this 'silk route' ?
Extensive land and maritime trade network operating between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations.
Global warming intensifies with the drying up of the Saraswati River and mass westward migrations of people from North West India.
"A team of archaeologists discovered several iron artefacts, including small knives, in Telangana in 2015, dating back to 1,800 BCE to 2,400 BCE. These iron artefacts were tested at the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI)."
2200 BC - Iron Age India:
Officially, the beginnings of the Iron Age around the world dates to 1200 BC, however, the Iron Age in India clearly goes back to 2200 BC. Archaeologists have found artefacts including knives and blades dated to this time. These findings clearly attest to India's ancient achievements in the field of metallurgy and push back the Iron Age in India.
C14 carbon studies performed by the metallurgists have shown that there were many other ancient mines from which silver, copper, tin, zinc and lead were produced.
Gene D. Matlock, Chaman Lal and others write about the Hindu connection with the
Americas from this or perhaps an earlier time indicating deep cultural and trade
The population of the Indian subcontinent is estimated at 6,000,000 but could be many times greater.
The development of swords (Academia) based on the supposition that the Rigveda and Atharvaveda are later works where as swords in other regions have been found dating to 1400 years earlier?
Possible date for the Horsemen of the Pir Panjal - some say they seem to be more Bactrian inspired than Indic
Chariots and weaponry in burial chambers at Sinauli, about 70 kilometres north of New Delhi.
"The excavation at Sinauli unearthed a 4000-year old chariot, copper weapons
and warrior burials. The chariot is encased in copper and is believed to be
the oldest surviving physical evidence of the chariot ever to be discovered in
the world. Alongside, there are also shields, bows and arrows, spears, swords,
helmets, axes and other copper weaponry that have been unearthed from the
burial sites." ~
Lapis from Afghanistan appears in Egypt proving trade and modern day Karalla
thought to be the fabled 'Land of Punt' from where Egypt acquired spices.
The Sarasvati River ceases to flow as a result of tectonic upheavals marking the end of the Harappan/Indus Valley Civilisation.
Mass migrations from North West India, The formative Jews?
1806 BC, lowest ebb of the Kali Yuga
Adichanallur urn-burial site in Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu.
Hindu culture (Sanatana Dharma) is strong across Southeast Asia and perhaps here we have the beginnings of Mahendraparvata and Angkor Wat in today's Cambodia?
Panchayat or self-governing village bodies called 'sabhas' existed as the
first known democracy. This system may have existed long before but the
Village Panchayat or elected council had large powers, both executive and
judicial. Land was distributed by this panchayat which also collected taxes
out of the produce and paid the government's share on behalf of the village.
Above a number of these village councils there was a larger panchayat or
council to supervise and interfere if necessary.
The panchayat was deliberately destroyed by the East India Company when it was
granted the office of Diwan in 1765.
Cemetery H culture comes to an end.
Late date for the Rigveda ?
A widely accepted birth/death dates for Shakyamuni Buddha 1029 BCE to 949 BCE
Late Vedic period (to 500 BCE)
The growth in education and the rise of universities - any Greek scholar worth his salt must travel and spend time studying in India.
Increased desertification hastened by agriculture and the use of wood for funerals, brickmaking and metal smelting - the Saraswati dries up and IVC ends.
Kashi (Varanasi), the spiritual and cultural capital of ancient India existed in this period. It's undisputed as the oldest inhabited city of the world and thought to have existed since long before.
Dharmic (Hindu) civilization evolved beyond the subcontinent shaping the social construct and statehood of Southeast Asia.
Through trade and education, small indigenous states were transformed into major kingdoms and empires led by a Maharajah with statecraft concept akin to those in India. It gave birth to the former Champa civilisation in southern parts of Central Vietnam, Funan in Cambodia, the Khmer Empire in Indochina, Langkasuka Kingdom and Old Kedah in the Malay Peninsula, the Sriwijayan kingdom on Sumatra, the Medang Kingdom, Singhasari and the Majapahit
Empire based in Java, Bali and parts of the Philippine archipelago.
The civilisation of India influenced the languages, scripts, written
tradition, literature's, calendars, scientific knowledge and artistic aspects
of these peoples and nations.
Takshashila University was the most famous and the world's first university. Also known as Taxila or Takshila,
it existed from about 600 BC to 500 AD. Taxila was in the kingdom of Gandhar, in Ancient India.
Pānini the renowned Sanskrit scholar and considered the father of linguistics lived in this period.
According to some, Gautama Buddha was born c. 563/480 BCE as per evidence at Lumbini
but seems a less likely date.
Commencement of the Sangam period of Tamil Nadu and Kerala spanning from c. 5th century BCE to 3rd century CE. Sangam literature based in Madurai has literary evidences of urban civilisation in Tamil Nadu.
Reign of Cyrus
the Great and
founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire559-530
His army reached into northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, today's Afghanistan, which later proved to be his nemesis and caused his death.
He chose the site of Percepolis under which lay a gold plate on which were
written the tenants of democracy and the Cyrus Cylinder, the
oldest known declaration of human rights likely learned/taken from India.
Rein of Perisan King Darius the Great (550-486 BC) who led the Achaemenid
conquest of the Indus Valley. Dara is an Indian name and his great grandfather
was called Ariaramnes.
The Vanga-based Prince Vijaya (c. 543 BCE) married a daughter of the Pandyan king of Madurai, to whom he was sending rich presents every year. Sinhalese chronicle Mahawamsa mentions this event.
End of the Kali Yuga and commencement of the current ascending Dwapara Yuga.
The ideals of
democracy (from India) are enshrined in the foundations of Persepolis.
The followers of Buddha are institutionalising Buddhism.
Extensive trade with Rome.
Indian elephants used in construction at Baalbek (and like places) and later to the Roman theater.
Envoys to and from China with special interest in Buddhism.
An early Greek coin discovered from Gandhara region, dated 500-400 BCE. This is one of the earliest evidence for Hindu contacts with Greece, dating to pre-Alexandrian era.
Kālidāsa, a Classical Sanskrit writer lives about this time.
The Barabar Caves are constructed about this time - they are carved entirely out of granite, with a highly polished internal surface and an amazing echo effect. These reflect great technological genuis.
Another proposed date for the Mahaparinirvana of Gautama Buddha at Kushinagar.
Persian rule in the northwest ends after Darius 3 is defeated by Alexander, who establishes the Macedonian Empire after taking over the Persian Achaemenid Empire and migration of Greeks into the region.
It's thought Alexander sent his plunder home by way of the Oxus, Aral,
Caspian, Black Sea to Mediterranean sea route and used that route to bring in
Ambhi king of Takshila, a university city surrenders to Alexander.
Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent (Afghanistan/Baluchistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.
Beginning of the Satavahana kingdom covering present-day Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Possible composition of the Arthashastra credited to Kautilya, also identified as Vishnugupta and Chanakya
Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga.
After conquering Kalinga, Ashoka reportedly regrets what he had done, leading him to adopt Buddhism, which then became the quasi-official state religion of the Mauryan Empire.
Ashoka begins displaying religious tolerance, grants animal rights, builds hospitals for people and animals, treats his subjects as equals regardless of caste or creed, and promotes non-violence and republicanism.
Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script.
Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire
Patanjali. the eminent composer of the Yoga Sutras dated to mid 2nd century BCE by both Western and Indian scholars
Kuninda Kingdom is established.
Tholkappiyam describes the grammar and morphology of Tamil; it is the oldest existing Tamil grammar (dates vary between 200 BCE and 100 CE). (to 100 BC)
Buddhism expands north westward and artefacts found in Scandinavia dated to this time.
Kalaripayattu - written evidence of martial arts in Southern India described in the Sangam literature of this period
Puspagiri University - Buddhist University is established (Lalitgiri). Today, its ruins lie atop the Langudi hills about 90 km from the Mahanadi delta, in the districts of Jajpur and Cuttack, Orissa.
The Pandyan king sends ambassadors to the Greek and Roman lands.
Beginning of Vikram Era - The Vikram Samvat calendar starts half a century before the Gregorian calendar and works on an Indian calendar cycle.
Note the time meridian or time reference point for the world was in Ujjain,
Western Satraps 35-405 CE (Kshatrapa the longest reigning Indo-Scythian group in India) formed.
Increased desertification hastened by agriculture and the use of wood for funerals, brickmaking and metal smelting.
Buddhism expands into South East Asia and begins to replace the existing Hindu culture.
"In the high plateau of eastern Iran, in the oases of Serindia, in the arid wastes of Tibet, Mongolia, and Manchuria, in the ancient civilized lands of China and Japan, in the lands of the primitive Mons and Khmers and other tribes of Indo-China, in the countries of the Malaya-Polynesians, in Indonesia and Malay, India left the indelible impress of her high culture, not only upon religion, but also upon art, and literature, in a word, all the higher things of spirit." Rene Grousset (1885-1952) French art historian. Author of several books including Civilization of India and The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia.