The Himalayan North of India
today is a controversial state within India as it's claimed by Pakistan who has
annexed part of Kashmir and sold off part of that to China. However it's not so
long ago Pakistan and even Afghanistan were part of India and split off by
who persist in claiming ownership.
Spiritually it's thought that Kashmir was home to the great Yogi, Lord Shiva as
the concept of Shivaism is thought to have developed there.
Geologists believe that about ten crore years have passed when Kashmir Valley
which was once a lake called Satisar came into its present form. For hundreds of
million years Kashmir Valley is supposed to have remained under Tethys Sea and
the high sedimentary-rock hills seen in the valley now were once under water.
Geologists have come to believe that Kashmir Valley was earlier affected by
earthquakes. Once there was such a devastating earthquake that it broke open the
mountain wall at Baramulla and the water of the Satisar lake flowed out leaving
behind latch string mud on the margins of the mountains known as karewas.
Thus came into existence the oval but irregular Valley of Kashmir. The karewas
being in fact the remnants of this lake confirm this view. The karewas are found
mostly to the west of the river Jhelum where these table-lands attain a height
of about 380 meters above the level of the Valley. These karewas protrude
towards the east and look like tongue-shaped spurs with deep ravines.
Ancient legends and popular traditions say that Samdimat Nagar, capital of the
kingdom of Sundra Sena, was submerged as a result of an earthquake and the water
that filled the area formed the Wular Lake, the largest fresh water lake in
India. The oldest igneous rocks are still found at Shankaracharya hill.
When the whole Valley of Kashmir was under water this hillock was the first
piece of dry land lying in the form of an igneous island.
Significance of its name
Historians say that Kashmir Valley was originally known as Kashyapmar or the
abode of Kashyap Rishi. It is said that the Rishi once went on a pilgrimage to
Kashmir. When he reached Naukabandan near Kaunsarnag via Rajouri, he killed
Bahudev, the Giant of Satisar, at the request of the people and let the water of
the lake flow out near Baramulla. The land, therefore, came to be known as
Kashyampar, which afterwards changed into Kashmar and from Kashmar to Kashmir.
But some historians are of the opinion that when the people of Kash caste
settled here permanently the valley came to be known as Kashmir. Kashmir is
known by many other names also. The Greeks called it Kaspeiria, while the
chinese named it Shie-inor Kia-Shi-Lo. The Tibetans called its Kanapal and Dards
named it Kashart.
Situation, Location, Area and Extent
The territories of Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh and Gilgit form the State of Jammu and
Kashmir. The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which had earlier been under Hindu
rulers and Muslim sultans, became part of the Mughal Empire under Akbar from
1586. After a period of Afgan rule from l756, it was annexed to the Sikh Kingdom
of Punjab in 1819. In 1820 Maharaja Ranjit Singh made over the territory of
Jammu to Gulab Singh. In 1846 Kashmir was also made over to Gulab Singh under
the Treaty of Amritsar. Ladakh was annexed by Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1830. Thus
this northernmost state was founded by Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1846 and was the
biggest princely state in India before the partition of the country in August
At that time the total area of the state was 2,22,236 sq. km. Pakistan invaded
the State in October 1947. Indian forces pushed Pakistan back but in 1949 when a
cease fire line was drawn about one third of the area i.e. 78932 sq. km. i.e.
the whole of Gilgit, Mirpur, Kotli and a part of Poonch came into the possession
of Pakistan, leaving behind only 1,43,300 sq. km. on the Indian side. Jammu,
Udhampur, Kathua and Anantnag districts remained unaffected.
Again in 1962 China occupied about 64000 sq. kms. in Ladakh known as Aksai Chin.
Pakistan again made possession over Chhamb, Deva, Chakla and Manawar gaining an
area of 3999 sq. km. Thus total area left on the Indian side is about 128500 sq.
There are many low lying valleys in the state like Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley,
Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Liddar Valley, but the main Valley is the valley
of Kashmir, which is 100 kms. wide and 15520.3 sq. kms. in area. Through this
valley flows the river Jhelum with its tributaries. The height of the valley
above sea level is about 1700 metres.
On the map of India, the State of Jammu and Kashmir looks like a crown. The
state is 640 km in length from north to south and 480 kms. form east to west. To
its north lie Chinese and Russian Turkistan. On its east is Chinese Tibet. On
the South and South-West lie the states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. On the
west is the North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan, China and Russia.
Afghanistan and Pakistan now have come close to the boundaries of the state of
Jammu and Kashmir. The nearness to the boundaries of foreign countries has made
the position of the State most important from military point of view.
The entire State lies between 32.17" and 36.58" North altitude and East to West,
the State lies between 73.26" and 80.30" longitude. The standard time is 5.30
hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time as in the rest of India and has a difference
of half an hour with the local time.
In latitude, the State of Jammu and Kashmir corresponds with South Carolina
(North America), Fez (Morocco), Damascus, Baghdad and Peshawar (Pakistan).
Kashmir is famous for its beauty and natural scenery throughout the world. Its
high snow-clad mountains, scenic spots, beautiful valleys, rivers with ice-cold
water, attractive lakes and springs and ever-green fields, dense forests and
beautiful health resorts, enhance its grandeur and are a source of great
attraction for tourists.
It is also widely known for its different kinds of agricultural products,
fruits, vegetables, saffron, herbs, minerals, precious stones handicrafts like
woollen carpets, shawls and finest kind of embroidery on clothes.
During summer, one can enjoy the beauty of nature, trout fishing, big and small
game hunting etc.; during winter climbing mountain peaks and sports like skating
and skiing on snow slopes are commonly enjoyed.
In addition to the above, Pilgrimage to famous religious shrines of the Hindus
and the Muslims make Kashmir a great tourist attraction.
About Kashmir Sheikh Sadia great Persian poet is believed to have said, "If
there is any heaven on earth, it is here in Kashmir."
The state of Jammu and Kashmir has acquired since the 19th century a unique
geo-political status in the Indian sub-continent. It has contiguous boundaries
with Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China and Tibet that deserve constant vigil
and as such it has made the State very important, geographically, politically,
economically and from the military point of view.
Jammu and Kashmir state acceded to the Indian Union in 1947 after the partition.
Before the partition in 1947, The English rulers of India took away Gilgit in
1946 from the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir on lease for thirty years so that
they could check the advancement of Russia towards India.
Physical Divisions, Mountains and Passes
The State of Jammu and Kashmir falls in the great north-western, complex of the
Himalayan ranges with marked relief variation, snow- capped summits, antecedent
drainage, complex geological structure and rich temperate flora and fauna.
Kashmir or the Jhelum Valley is situated between the Pir Panjal range and the
Zanskar range and has an area of 15220 sq km. It is bounded on all sides by
mountains. The river Jhelum, which flows out from the spring at Verinag in
Anantnag district, passes through this Valley at a very slow speed and
ultimately flows out through a narrow gorge at Baramulla.
Districts of Srinagar, Anantnag, Baramulla, Kupwara and Pulwama lie in this
valley. Average height of the valley is 1850 metres above sea level but the
surrounding mountains, which are always snow-clad, rise from three to four
thousand metres above sea level. The surface of the valley is plain and abounds
with springs, lakes and health resorts.
Rice is the main crop and fruits like apples, pears, apricots, almonds, walnuts,
peaches and cherries grow in abundance. The valley is also rich in forests.
Mulberry trees grow in abundance and are the mainstay of silk industry in the
Summer is pleasant but winters are very cold and there is snowfall. It rains
from the middle of March to the middle of May in the valley with annual rainfall
of about 75 cms. Road transport is common in the valley but the river Jhelum
still serves as one of the means of transportation. There is also Air Service
from Delhi and Jammu to Srinagar and Ladakh.
Kashmir is the home of handicrafts like wood carving, papier-mache, carpet,
gabba and shawl making and embroidery on clothes.
Natural scenery of the valley attracts thousands of visitors every year from
abroad. People generally speak Kashmiri and their common dress is phiran,
shalwar and a turban or a Kashmiri cap.
There are also some small valleys in this region. On the north of Baramulla is
Lolab valley which is 6 Kms long and 4.4Kms wide. It has many meadows and groves
of walnut trees. Forests are so thick that they hide villages in them. Nullah
Sind is the largest tributary of the river Jhelum.
The Nullah Sind valley is 100 Kms long upwards and its scenery is diversified.
At the head of the valley is the Zojilla pass which leads to Ladakh.
Towards Pehlgam lies the Liddar Valley. Its length is 64 Kms. It has small
glaciers, grassy meadows, huge rock walls and gorges in its upper mountains. The
path to the holy Amarnath cave passé through this valley. The Kolohai and
Sheshnag streams join at Pahalgam to form the Liddar River.
Mountains and their Passes
Mountains have a special geographical importance to the State of Jammu and
Kashmir. Kashmir valley is enclosed by high mountain-chains on all sides except
for certain passes and a narrow gorge at Baramulla. There are Siwalik Hills
towards the south and very lofty mountains in the north, the peaks of which
always remain covered with snow. There are volcanic mountains too in the State.
They have caused havoc in Kashmir in the past.
Some of the famous mountains and their passes are:
1. Karakoram (8615.17 M) and Kyunlun Ranges:
Both these mountains lie to the north and north-east of the State and separate
it from Russian Turkistan and Tibet. In the North-West, Hindukush range
continues towards Karakoram Range, where K2 peak, the second highest peak of the
world, is situated. Two lofty peaks of Gashorbram (8570 metres) and Masharbram
(7827 metres) also lie there. People of Ladakh pass through Karakoram pass (5352
metres) and Nubra pass (5800 metres) while going to Chinese Turkistan and
Khattan. One can reach Tibet from Ladakh via Kharudangala pass (5557 metres) and
Changla pass (5609 metres).
2. Zanskar Range:
It is about 600 metres above sea level and separates Indus Valley from the
valley of Kashmir; it prevents south-west cold winds from reaching Kashmir.
Ladakh region terminates at Zojila pass (3529 metres) from where begins the
valley of Kashmir. Poat pass (5716 metres) of this range is also a famous pass
in this range.
3. Nun Kun Range:
It lies between Ladakh and kashmir border. It is 7055.1 metres above sea level.
To its south-east is situated Kuluand to its north-west is situated Kargil
tehsil of Ladakh . One has to pass through Bawalocha pass(4891 metres) to reach
Leh (Ladakh) from Kulu. In 1947, when Kargil was attacked by Pakistan, Indian
forces, arms and ammunition were sent to Ladakh by the Indian Union through this
4. Nanga Parbat Range:
This range spreads in Gilgit. Its height is 8107.68 metres above sea level and
is utterly devoid of vegetation. It was conquered by the Italian mountaineers in
5. Harmukh Mountain:
This is a range of the Himalayas and is situated at a height of 5141.3 metres
above sea level towards Bandipora between the rivers Jhelum and Kishan Ganga
6. Burzil Mountain:
It bifurcates Kashmir and Ladakh on which Burzil pass is situated at a height of
3200 metres above sea level.
7. Amarnath Mountain:
This is famous for its holy Amarnath Cave, at a height of 5372 metres above sea
level, which thousands of pilgrims visit every year on Raksha bandan. They have
to pass Mahagunas pass (1475 metres) on their way to Shri Amarnathji.
Gwasharan (5450 metres) is situated in the Lidar valley towards Pahalgam; on it
lays the famous glacier Kolahi. Sheeshnag Mountain also spreads in this valley.
It is called Sheshnag as its peaks resemble the heads of seven big snakes.
Toshmaindan (4270 metres) and Kajinag (3700 metres) mountains lie in the Inner
Himalayas. They remain clad with snow throughout the year, but during summer
when the snow melts, the water flows down into the Jhelum River.
This Mountain spreads through the Gulmarg valley. The famous spring Alpathar
lies on its peak, from which Nullah Nagal comes out and flows down into the
10. Pir panjal Range:
It separates Kashmir valley from the outer Himalayas and is about 2621 Km in
length and 50 Kms. in breadth. Famous Banihal pass (2832 metres) lies in the
shape of a tunnel on its peak; it remains covered with snow during winter making
it impassable. Now at a height of 2200 metres above sea level a new tunnel 'Jawahar
Tunnel' has been constructed. The tunnel is 2825 metres long and it was opened
for traffic on 22nd Dec. 1956. On the other end of this range lie Baramulla pass
(1582 metres) and Haji pir pass (2750 metres). Haji pir joins Poonch and Uri.
During 1965 Indo-Pak war, the Indian army had occupied this pass. Later on it
was handed over to Pakistan.
11. Siwalik Range:
These hills extend from the north of the outer plains to middle mountains of the
State reaching heights varying from 600 metres to 1500 metres above sea level.
12. Volcanic mountains:
One volcanic peak, 'Soyamji' (1860 metres) is situated in North Machhipura (Handwara)
and the other 'Kharewa' peak lies in Tehsil Pehalgam, which is dead so far; the
former, however, continued eruption of lava for about l3 months during 1934.
There is a temple on this peak and many sulphur springs are found at the foot of
the hill. These volcanic mountains are the cause of earthquakes in Kashmir. So
far twelve devastating earthquakes have occurred in Kashmir. Of these the
earthquake of 1885 was the most devastating. Hundreds of houses collapsed,
thousands of people died and there were cracks in the earth as a result of this
Climate The territory of the State of Jammu and Kashmir lies between four
degrees of latitude from 32.17 to 36.58 north. Within these 640 Km there is a
sudden rise of altitude from 305 metres to 6910 metres above sea level. The
State of Jammu and Kashmir, therefore, lies between the hot plains of the Jammu
Province and coldest dry table-land of Ladakh. These territories are, as such,
transitional in climate.
Weather conditions are different at different places. There are many causes of
1. Relief is the main factor. Lofty mountains like the Pirpanjal, the Zanskar
and the Karakoram check winds from blowing in thus moisture is stopped from
entering the valleys by the lofly mountains.
2. The Monsoon winds in summer cause rain in the Outer Plains and the Outer
Hills. But these winds can cross the Pir panjal range only when they are very
strong. In winter winds from the Mediterranean cause snow and rain in the Valley
of Kashmir. Snow falls on the mountains which enclose the valley.
3. Forests influence winds, rainfall and temperature. The moisture laden winds
cause rainfall in the forests on the hills making the temperature to fall in
summer. Thus the climate of Pahalgam, Gulmarg etc. is comparatively milder than
that of Srinagar or Sopore.
4. Altitude is also a factor. So the climate of the valley of Kashmir is
comparatively milder than that of the Outer Plain that lies on a very low
altitude. The rainfall also varies as the altitude rises.
Climate of Kashmir
The climate found in the zone of the Middle Mountains and the valleys enclosed
is of a particular type. Altitude determines the degree of coolness and
elevation the form of precipitation and summer temperature. Winter is cold and
of long duration. When the monsoons are strong, rain is caused. In higher
mountains round the valley of Kashmir, winter is very cold and there is
snow-fall. Summer is very short and milder. The climate in the Valley of Kashmir
has its own peculiarities. Winter is very cold. It lasts from November to March.
During these months strong winds bring snow and rain from the Mediterranean
depressions. These come over from Iran and Afghanistan.
Spring begins after 15th of March when rain falls heavily. It causes landslides.
But for sowing crops this rain is extremely useful. Rainfall in July and August
is as high as 70% and with summer temperature, it causes discomfort. The lakes
and waterways make the atmosphere damp and oppressive. The entire valley is
covered with a haze that hides the surrounding mountains from view.
The seasons are marked with sudden change and the year is divided into six
seasons of two months each.
Spring March 15 to May 15.
Summer May 15 to July 15
Rainy Season July 15 to Sept. 15
Autumn Sept. 15 to Nov 15.
Cold Nov. 15 to Jan 15
Very Cold Jan 15 to March 15
From December 24 to March 8 temperature is often below zero. Strong winds blow
from south and southeast. It snows during winter and there are thick black
clouds in the sky.
Annual rainfall of the valley recorded is about 75 cms. It rains in July and
August and also in March and April. August is the warmest month. Temperature
rises to 85 deg. F. January is the coldest month. Temperature falls down to
below zero. Longest sunshine hours are in September, October and November.
December has 80% humidity which is the highest and May has 71% which is the
lowest. In July atmosphere has a pressure of 62.68 cms.
Vegetation & Soil Types
Vegetation is influenced by climate, rainfall soil and altitude. Since these
factors vary as the altitude rises from the outer plains of Jammu Province to
the loftiest mountain ranges of the Inner Himalayas, it is but natural that the
vegetation should vary from the Inner Himalayas to the middle mountains and the
outer plains of Jammu region.
Forests are one of the most important resources of Jammu and Kashmir. Spread
over 2,236 sq. kms. of the demarcated area forests accounts for 20% of the total
geographical area of the state on this side of the Line of Control. More than
99% of forest area is confined to the province of Jammu & Kashmir only, with
largest area of 5848 sq. km in district of Doda and smallest are of 481 sq. kms.
in the district of Budgam. Over 19,236 sq. kms. is under coniferous softwood
(Pine) and 946 sq. kms under non-coniferous softwood. In the coniferous
category, Fir accounts for 3355 sq. kms, Kail for 1874 sq.kms, Chir for 1773 sq.
kms. and Deodar for 1122 sq. kms. Forests require abundance of moisture in the
soil. So they are found in the areas where there is sufficient rainfall or along
the banks of the rivers where sufficient water is available.
In the State of Jammu and Kashmir forests are mainly found where annual rainfall
is about 100 cms. However, scrub forests are found, where rainfall iseven less
than 100 cm. The valley of Kashmir has deciduous vegetation. The Chinar, Poplar,
Deodar, Fir, Pine, Kail, Partal, Mulberry, Walnut and other fruit trees grow
throughout the valley. Baramulla and Anantnag districts have respectively 71%
and 60% of their areas under forests. Big forests in the valley provide timber
and fire-wood. Grassy meadows in the forest provide fodder for the cattle.
Medicinal herbs such as balladona, hyoseyamus, digitalis, menthol, artemisis,
polygola, podophyllum, rubus, trilliu, hops and kuth grow in these forests.
Industries like paper, joinery sports goods, furniture, wood carving, herbal
drugs, silk industry and manufacture of agricultural implements and construction
of railway sleepers depend on these forests.
The thick undergrowth in the forests stores up rain water and allows it to flow
slowly and that is why rivers that have their sources in the forests do not run
dry in the dry seasons and check floods during the rainy season.
Among these forests are situated the famous health resourts like Gulmarg,
Pahalgam, Sonamarg, Achhabbal, Verinag and Kokarnag etc.
Industries Dependent on Forests
1. Match Industry. Poplar wood available in the valley of Kashmir is mainly used
by this industry. A large Government Match Factory has been established at
Baramula since long. Its annual production is 60,000 gross boxes of matches.
2. The wood of poplar and willow trees is used for making cricket bats and
mulberry wood is used for making hockey sticks.
3. Sentonin Factory in Baramulla manufactures sentonin from artimisia. This drug
is used as a helminthecide which is exported to foreign countries also.
4. Rifle Half-Wrought Factory in Baramula manufactures walnut wood rifle-butts.
Research on different kinds of forest herbs is carried in the Regional Research
Laboratories, one at Jammu and the other at Barzula, Srinagar. The Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research uses raw material from these forests for
The State Government has established two large joinery mills at Pampore
(Kashmir) and at Bari Brahmana (Jammu).
Walnut trees grow in abundance in Kashmir. Walnut wood is suitable for wood
carving and Kashmiri artisans are expert wood carvers. The carved goods are
exported to foreign countries also. At Pampore (Kashmir) and Bari Brahmana
(Jammu) plywood, hard-board and chip board manufacturing factories have been
established by the State Government in collaboration with a firm from Calcutta.
Three large Truck and Bus Body Building factories for the manufacture of truck
and bus bodies are established in Jammu and Srinagar.
Pulp required for the manufacture of Hand-made paper strawboard and cardboard is
also obtained from the forests.
In the regions of Jammu and Kashmir the soils are loamy and there is little clay
content in them. Poor in lime but with a high content of magnesia, the soil is
treated with chemical fertilisers and enriched with green manure and legume
before cultivation. There is sufficient organic matter and nitrogen content in
the alluvium of the Kashmir valley as a result of plant residue, crops stubble,
natural vegetation and animal excretion.
The valley of Kashmir has many types of soils like: Gurti (clay), Bahil (Loam),
Sekil (Sandy), Nambal (Peats), Sur zamin, Lemb, Floating garden soils and Karewa
Irrigation plays an important role in the agriculture of the State of Jammu and
Kashmir. Our State does not receive rain throughout the year and sometimes it is
quite insufficient and it is neither uniform nor certain. In Jammu region
temperature conditions favour cultivation of crops throughout the year but due
to non availability of water in the region the plant growth is limited. Rainy
season provides sufficient water from July to September. In winter also this
region receives several showers of rain. The remaining months of the year are
dry. This problem had since been solved by irrigation and 25% of the total
cultivated land is irrigated. Out of 6,00,000 Hectares of cultivated land
1,50,000 is cultivated through irrigation.
In Kashmir valley it rains mostly in winter when temperature is too low for
plant growth. When the temperature begins to raise in May and onwards the
rainfall decreases and except some showers of rain in July-August most of the
growing season remains dry. Since ages the farm economy has been dependent on a
single crop and the cultivator cannot take chances with it. He always requires
sufficient water supply for his fields, therefore, he depends mostly upon canals
for irrigation. Many snows fed streams running down the slopes of the mountains
makes it very easy for him to construct small canals or pools. In this way 60%
of the cultivated land in the valley is irrigated.
Methods of Irrigation:
The following methods of irrigation are in use in the State of Jammu and
1. Canals form the most important system of irrigation in the Outer- plains and
in the broad valley of Kashmir where the soil is soft and alluvial and canals
can be easily dug. Moreover, the Jhelum and its tributaries are all snow-fed and
they never run dry. They supply water to the canals throughout the year. About
486072 acres of land in Kashmir are irrigated by canals.
2. Lift Irrigation by pumping water to higher level and then carrying it to the
field through canals.
3. Wherever water is available at the depth of one or two metres, it is drawn
out by lever system and then supplied to the fields directly. At present about
6000 such wells are working in the valley.
Canals in the Valley of Kashmir
1. The Martand Canal is the oldest canal in Kashmir. It is about 50 Km long. It
irrigates about 9.5 thousand acres of land around Matan, Dichhanpur, Khavapura
and Anantnag. It takes its water from the river Liddar at Ganeshpora.
2. The Shakful Canal takes its water from the Nullah Sind. It irrigates many
villages from Manigam to Safapore. Flowing at a higher level, the canal has been
utilised to produce electric power.
3. The Sharabkul Canal takes its water from the Harwan Lake. It flows up to
Chashma Shahi to the east of Dal Lake. Its water is mostly used for small
patches of cultivation. It also irrigates orchards.
4. The Lalkul Canal takes its water from the Nullah Pohru at Bubhama near
Kupwara. It irrigates fields in Kupwara, Drugmul, Sopore and Handwara. It is
about 3 Km long and irrigates about 7500 acres.
5. The Zainagir Canal is a famous canal. It is 47 Km long, takes its water from
the river Madhumati. It flows through Bandipora on the bank of the Wullar Lake
at Sonawari. It moves in loops till it enters Sopore irrigating about 13300
acres of land.
6. The Dadikul Canal takes its water from the Nullah Liddar at Kotsu near
Chatapura. It is 19 Km long and irrigates about 8000 acres of land in the Khuram,
dichhanpura, Anantnag and Sarharna area.
7. The Nur Canal is about 13 Km long and takes its water from the river Jhelum
at Shadipur and then flows into the Wullar Lake. It irrigates Andarkut village.
It is a model of the canal that was constructed by Soya during Avantivarman's
8. The Sumbal Canal takes its water from the Nullah Sukhang at Kosa. It is 35.5
Km long and irrigates Sonawari area and flows back into the river Jhelum at
Shadipur. More than 5000 acres of land are irrigated by this canal.
9. The Zarkul Canal takes its water from the Nullah Sind at Prang and irrigates
about 20000 acres of land. It is an old canal and was constructcd during the
reign of Zain-ul-Abdin Badshah. It irrigates upper-land karewa on the Mansbal
Lake, Manasbal, Lar, Asham and Ganderbal.
10. The Zainapur Canal takes its water from the river Vishav at Bharijug. It is
32 kms long and irrigates 6000 acres of land in Kulgam, and Zainapur area.
11. The Nandikul Canal takes its water from from the Nullah Anantnag at Lassipur
and was originally constructed during reign of Avantivarman. It is 30 Km long
and irrigates 8000 acres of land in the northern areas of Anantnag.
12. The Parimpur Canal takes its water from the Dudh-Ganga at Parimpura. It is 8
13. The Mahind Canal was constructed in 1956. It takes its water from Nullah
Liddar at Sakhras. It is l6 Km long and irrigates about 2500 acres of land in
Seyria, Vichhanpura and Anantnag.
14. The Avantipur Canal takes its water from the Nullah Liddar at Doohjan. It is
36 Km long and irrigates 5000 acres of land of the east of Pampore. It was
constructed in 1953.
15. The Kayal Canal takes its water from the Nullah Rambara at Patipore. It is
50 Km long and irrigates about 5500 acres of land. It was constructed in 1953.
16. The Rishipora Canal takes its water from the river Vishav at Mitrajan. It is
18 Km long and irrigates about 3000 acres of land. It was constructed in 1956.
17. The Babul Canal takes its waterfrom the Nullah Ferozpore at Tangmarg. It is
22.5 Km long and irrigates about 4500 acresof land below Gulmarg. It was also
constructed in 1956. Besides these, Chandosa, Beoarachani, Gand, Malora,
Rikhiletar, Gorkha, Awanpura and Brinjal are other small canals in the valley
that irrigate about 15000 acres of land in the surrounding areas. Over 486072
acres of land are irrigated by the canals, wells and lift-irrigation system in
Kashmir Valley; the district of Anantnag constitutes 50% of this total.
Navigating Indian History
The Rationale for Dharma
The First Universities
Trees in Hindu Culture
The Sati Myth
A Chronology of Hindu History