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Last updated Dec/2020

Commonly used Sanskrit words for Yoga and Dharma studies

Sanskrit is thought to be the world's first language from which all have evolved or been influenced by. The sounds are primal and focused on describing a world view based on the intrinsic nature of matter, and an internal world view describing the nature of mankind.

Sanskrit is not a language for common use. It's said to be too refined and corruptable when day to day chores (phrases) are added to it which is why it has been preserved it as an Oral Verbal Language to be was used with very strict rules of grammar in form of Mantras. Strict grammar and exact pronunciation must be used to preserve the meaning and (physiological) effects of Mantras without which the rituals encoded will not work. As Hinduism has become damaged, Sanskrit has fallen into some disuse yet it's Hindu and our global society that has been most damaged.

These words commonly used in books about Yoga, Buddhism and Hinduism are often a challenge to understand, I hope this guide helps or you can use an online Sanskrit dictionary.


Abhyasa: practice - the act of practising

Acharya: teacher

Adwaita a philosophy according to which there is no duality - only a singular state of consciousness

Agni: fire

Agnisar kriya: one of the shatkarmas (cleansing practices) -intestinal cleansing

Aham: ego

Ahimsa: a yoga ethic relating to harmlessness

Ahankara: sometimes translated as ego, ahankara shapes your identity in relation to your society.

Akasa or Akasha: infinite, omnipresent material of the universe.

Ajapa japa: spontaneous repetition of 'soham' mantra

Ajna chakra: energy center located behind the forehead, also called psychic centre - one of the seven energy centers

Akasha: ether, space

Amrita -the essence of life or fountain of youth. In tantra it refers to female ejaculate; divine nectar of the Goddess;

Anahata: chakra energy center located in the heart region; also called pranic centre - fourth of the seven energy centres.

Ananda: bliss, ecstasy

Anima: power to assimilate oneself with an atom.

Antar: inner, internal

Antar dhauti: internal yoga cleansing, a shatkarma techniques

Antar kumbhak:a internal breath retention. The stage of pranayama where breath is retained after inhalation.

Antar mouna: internal silence - a meditation practice.

Anima: power to assimilate oneself with an atom.

Anubhava: experience, realization

Ardha: half

Ardha dhanurasana: half bow yoga pose

Ardha matsyendrasana: half spinal twist yoga position

Ardha padmasana: half lotus pose

Arya: the worthy or the holy one

Asana: a posture; a Yoga exercise also called yogasana.

Ashtanga: the eight limbs of yoga described by Patanjali.

Ashtanga yoga: a transformative vinyasayoga practice formulated in Mysore, India by the late Shri K. Pattabhi Jois.

Ashrama or Ashram: Yoga retreat, residential place of people living together in yogic tradition.

Ashwini mudra practice of contracting the anal sphincter.

Atman: soul or the essence of perfection inherent to all creatures. Ātman: (आत्मन्) is a Sanskrit word used to indicate the Self or Soul in Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist traditions. In Hindu philosophy, especially in the Vedanta schools, Ātman is the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the ultimate essence of all individuals. In order to attain salvation (liberation), a human being must acquire self-knowledge (atma jnana), realizing that one's true self is identical with the transcendent Self, Brahman.

Aum: also spelt Om - the universal sound. See Om below.

Avyakta: that which is unperceived, indiscrete.

Avidya ignorance

Avyakta: that which is unperceived, indiscrete.


Bahir: outside, external

Bahir kumbhaka: external breath retention. The stage of pranayama where breath is retained after exhalation.

Bahiranga trataka: concentrating the attention (gaze) upon an external object such as a candle flame.

Bandha: a mystic breathing exercise. A posture in which organs and muscles are contracted to create an energy lock.

Basti: a colon cleansing technique (shakarma), yogic enema

Bhagvad Gita a part of the famous Hindu epic 'Mahabharata'.

Bhakti: devotion sometimes spelled Bakti

Bhakti yoga: the yoga of devotion.

Bhastrika pranayama: 'bellows' breathing technique in which the breath is forcibly drawn in and out through the nose in equal proportions, like the pumping action of the bellows.

Bhunda or Bandah: muscular lock used in pranayam

Bhramari pranayama: breathing practice in which a soft "humming-bee" sound is produced during exhalation to stimulate the Ajna Chakra

Bhujangasana: cobra' pose.

Bikram Yoga: a yoga franchise organisation headed by Bikram Chowdry that tried to patent a series of yoga asanas.

Brahman: supreme consciousness and absolute reality.

Brahmacarya: a yoga ethic relating to continence that some mistake for celibacy or chastity as an abstinence from sexual indulgence.

Buddha: the Sanskrit "Bud" means "to perceive" "to learn" from "Bud" we get "Budh" meaning "to wake up" "to know" "to understand" "to arouse". From "Budh" we then get "Buddha" meaning "awakened" "enlightened" "expanded" "conscious" "sage".

"Buddha" is the name which was awarded to Siddhartha due to his "awakened" "enlightened" state and so he became "Buddha" the "awakened one". The Sanskrit "Bud" and "Buddha" meaning "awakened" is seen throughout the European languages - Bulgaria - Budya - Serbian - Budan - Slovenia - Buden - Croatia - Budna - Lithuania - Budrus - Bosnia - Buden - Macedonia - Buden - Polish - Budzik - Russian - Budit - Slovak - Pre-budit - Czech - Pro-budit - Belorussia - A-budzany - Ukraine - Budyty - All meaning "awake" and all reflecting this Sanskrit "Bud" and "Buddha" meaning "awakened" "enlightened".
Buddhi: the intellect that functions - thinks in relation to all stored memories -  "intelligence" "reason" "perception" "realisation". In the Vedas we have "Buddhi yoga" meaning "one who links to the Supreme through intelligence"


Chakra: a nerve center along the confluence of the nadis within the human body.

Chandra: moon

Channeling: the process of receiving communication from an infinite number of dimensional realities. This communication can be expressed via writing, verbal relay, artwork, music composition, and any creative expression.

Chela: disciple

Chidakasha: a psychic space in front of the closed eyes, just behind the forehead.

Chin mudra: hand gesture in which the first finger is kept at the root of the thumb, the last three fingers are unfolded.

Chitta: mind without memory or pure intelligence. It connects to the basis of creation within you connecting you with your consciousness and may be referred to as cosmic intelligence. Chitta maintains our autonomic nervous system - breath, heart etc.

Chit Shakti: The power of chitta. If you are in touch with your chitta, this will make your life flow beautifully.


Dakini: Yogini or female Tantrica, attendant to the Goddess, commonly used to describe a sexual Priestess (Daka would be a male priest)

Danda: stick

Darshana: inner vision; to be in the presence of the divine

Danda dhauti: one of the cleansing techniques (shatkarmas), used to clean the oesophagus with a stick.

Danta dhauti teeth cleansing technique

Deva: A god, deity or cosmic power

Devi: A goddess, deity or cosmic power

Dhanurasana: bow' pose; backward bending yoga pose

Dharana: practice of concentration, mental effort involved in selecting one object out of many for concentration.

Dharma: divine duty, or individual spiritual purpose, righteous path

Dhauti: shatkarmas for cleansing techniques for the eyes, ears, tongue, forehead, oesophagus, stomach, colon and rectum.

Dhvani: 'sound' or 'echo,' defined as the incomparable meaningful impression of a feature of a poem/line which strikes you only after the first read.

Dhyana meditation; single-pointed focus of mind on either a form, thought or sound.

Diksha initiation given by the guru.

Dosha: an ayurvedic term relating to the three humours of the body; kapha, pitta & vata.

Dugdha neti: nasal irrigation or cleansing technique using milk

Durga: the warrior or wrathful Goddess


Garima: power to be as heavy as anything.

Ghrita neti: neti (nasal cleansing technique) performed with ghee

Gomukhasana: cow's face' posture

Guna: a thing of sense. All matter in the universe arises from the fundamental substrate called Prakriti. From this ethereal Prakriti the three primary gunas (qualities) emerge creating the essential aspects of all nature-energy, matter and consciousness. These three gunas are tamas (darkness), rajas (activity), and sattva (beingness). All three gunas are always present in all beings and objects surrounding us but vary in their relative amounts. We humans have the unique ability to consciously alter the levels of the gunas in our bodies and minds though diet, right though and right actions.

Gorakshasana: Yogi Gorakhnath's' pose

Guptasana the 'secret' pose.

Guru: spriritual teacher or leader.


Hatha: literally the "Sun joins the Moon" symbolically translates to the soul's connection with the body.

Hatha Yoga: system of Yoga for care of the body; physical Yoga.

Hridaya akasha: psychic space of the heart centre


Ida: left nostril:

Ida nadi: one of the main energy channels running on the left side of the spine from the mooladhara (base) chakra to the ajna chakra in the head, left nostril.

Isha:  The Feminine Principal

Isvarapranaidana: devotion - or the divine principal working for you.

Ishvara: the supreme soul or Siva, nature of existence.

Isvata: power to create.


Jala: water

Jala basti: the yoga technique of enema using water - one of the yoga shatkarma

Jna: that which knows or discriminates.

Joytis: light.

Jala neti: a shatkarma technique of cleansing the nasal passages with water.

Jalandhara bandha: throat lock' to restrict the flow of bereath through the throat - done by resting the chin on the upper sternum (chest).

Japa: continuous chanting orrepetition of a mantra

Jihva dhauti: one of the shatkarma techniques for cleansing the tongue.

Jnana: knowledge, understanding or wisdom

Jnana mudra: in this mudra the index finger is bent so that its tip is joined with the tip of the thumb, the other three fingers are spread out as a gesture of knowledge.

Jnana yoga: an intellectual pursuit of yoga through self-analysis and investigation.


Kala: darkness

Kali: a deity representing the divine feminine. Also written as Kalika.

Kapal: skull or cerebrum

Kaivalya: state of oneness.

Kalpavriksha: a wishing tree - a longer explanation.

Kama: love, pleasure, desire.

Kanda: point below the navel from which 72,000 nadis issue.

Kapalbhati pranayama: a breathing technique aimed at cleaning the frontal part of the brain; also called skull polishing - done through rapid breaths with more force on exhalation.

Karma: memory - a cosmic operation of a form of retributive justice, under which a person's status in life is determined by her/his own deeds in previous incarnations. As one gives, so  shall one receive. Or; what goes around comes around. Karma denotes balance and is a principle carried within the soul's energy from lifetime to lifetime. The old way of understanding was that karma was balanced through "an eye for an eye." A more multidimensional perspective claims that karma is superseded by the exercising of free will and choice along with the commitment to the practising of one's highest truths. Karma can be carried by an individual, a group, a species, or a mass consciousness.

Karma yoga: the yoga of action, principly service to generate positive karma

Karma-nadi: a nerve in which the vital air is supposed to reside.

Karna dhauti: one of the shatkarma which involves cleansing the ears.

Kati chakrasana: waist rotating' pose.

Klesha: afflictions or tensions

Kevala kumbhaka: spontaneous cessation of breath without any conscious effort.

Koormasana: a yoga asana or tortoise' pose.

Kosha: sheath or body.

Kriya: a system of internal purification, a cleansing process.

Kriya yoga: through the practices of self purification, kundalini awakens.

Kumbhaka: retention or suspension of the breath.

Kukkutasana: yoga asana,  cock pose

  • The vital core of our being which connects heaven and earth.
  • Human potential energy and consciousness lying dormant in mooladhara (base) chakra like a coiled serpent. When awakened it rises up through the sushumna nadi.
  • sleeping goddess within the internal organs.
Kunjal kriya: a shatkarma (cleansing) technique that involves the cleansing of the stomach by drinking in water and then expelling it by inducing vomiting.


Laghima: power to be as light as cotton or any similar thing.

Laghoo shankhaprakshalana: a shatkarma technique - also referred as the short intestinal wash. Involves the drinking of several glasses of water and the expelling it through stool after a series of exercises (asanas); in the process a thorough cleansing of the colon takes place.

Lakshmi: The Goddess of abundance, wealth, happiness and prosperity. The consort of Lord Vishnu

Laya yoga: union with the supreme consciousness through pranayama or devotion. Literally, union by absorption.

Lingam or linga: a phallus like object and a container of power representing Siva that is found temples. Also a common name for the male penis. See Dhyanalinga


Maha: great

Mahavideha: condition in which knowledge of every description is within easy reach of the ascetic and obtainable without effort.

Maha bandha: combines the three locks; moola bandha, jalandhara bandha and uddiyana bandha with breath retention.

Maha mudra: combines the practice of moola bandha, shambhavi and khechari mudras.

Maha nadi: another word for 'sushumna'

Mahima: power to expand oneself into space.

Maha samadhi: a super conscious state of leaving the body and one no longer exists as an individual. It is a freedom from existence and may also be referred to as nirvana.

Mahakala: a dimension of Siva, or that which is not. Ref

Mahilāमहिला : woman

Mahilāḥमहिलाः women

Maithuna: A tantric ritual usually culminating in union

Makarasana: crocodile' pose

Mantra:  repetition of a name of God ond/or a phrase representing higher consciousness. This is based on the premise that thinking is based on what we normally think. So if we speak the name of God, our thinking will become divine.

Manas: (manomaya kosha) means brain or mind in a broad sense.  It includes cellular memory and intellegence.

Manas chakra: the energy center above the ajna chakra.

Mandala: meaning circle and representing the universe, the pattern symbolising the interconnection of life.

Manipura chakra: the energy centre in the spinal column located behind the navel corresponding to the solar plexus.

Mitahara: moderation in diet.

Moksha: state of bliss.

Mudra: one of the higher practices of Yoga; a psycho-physiological practice or exercise.

Muladhara: navel.

Mukti: salvation; deliverance; emancipation from rebirth.

Matsyendrasana: a spine twisting pose

Maya: illusion

Mayurasana: peacock pose.

Moksha: liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

Moola: root

Moola bandha energy lock created by the contraction of the perineum in the male and the cervix in the female.

Mooladhara: chakra lowest energy centre in the human body where the kundalini shakti resides.

Moorchha pranayama: fainting or swooning breath.

Mouna: silence

Mudra: a gesture to expresses and channel energy.

Marg: path


Nadi: nerves or channels of the subtle body.

Namaska: salutation

Namaste: a social greeting - I salute the godness within you

Namaskar: a social greeting - I salute the godness within you. The difference between Namaste and Namaskar is regional.

Navratri: also known as Durga Puja.

"Navaratri is dedicated to the feminine nature of the Divine. Durga, Lakshmi, and Saraswati are symbols of the three dimensions of the feminine. They also represent the three basic qualities of existence - tamas, rajas, and sattva. Tamas means inertia, rajas means activity and passion. Sattva, in a way, is the breaking of boundaries, dissolution, melting and merging. Among the three celestial objects, with which the very making of our bodies is very deeply connected - the earth, the sun, and the moon. Mother Earth is considered tamas, the Sun is rajas, the Moon is sattva," Sadhguru.
Nirodha: annihilation or non existence

Nirvana: non existence where one is free even from from freedom but is not death.

Nivritti marg" the "path of transcendence" one which turns "vritti" away from the world. The "ni" or "na" means "no" indeed its the source of the English "no" and combined with "vritti" it means "no ( ni ) more turning ( vritti )" a path which extinguishes material life and puts an end to the wheel of samsara.

Niṣṭhā निष्ठा : Devotion

Niyama: yoga ethic relating to cleanliness, contentment, self study and deification to good.

Numbers: १ एक- eka- "one"
२ द्व- dva- "two"
३ त्रि- tri- "three"
४ चतुर catur- "four"
५ पञ्च- pañca- "five"
६ षष- ṣaṣ- "six"
७ सप्त- sapta- "seven" ८ अष्ट- aṣṭa- "eight"
९ नव- nava- "nine"
१० दश- daśa- "ten"


Ojas: subtle vital force within the body

Om or AUM: the universal sound. Please play the video for a longer explanation.

Om Namah; Shivay: ॐ नमः शिवाय:
Its translation is "salutations (namas) to Śhiva", preceded by the mystical syllable "Aum". Om Namah Shivaya mantra is chanted by devotees in prayers and recited by yogis in meditation. It is associated with qualities of prayer, divine-love, grace, truth and blissfulness.

It means "I bow to Shiva." Shiva is the supreme reality, the inner Self. It is the name given to consciousness that dwells in all. Shiva is the name of your true identity- your self.

Shiva, though considered as destroyer, also symbolizes the inner self which remains intact even after everything ends.

Traditionally, it is accepted to be a powerful healing mantra beneficial for all physical and mental ailments. Soulful recitation of this mantra brings peace to the heart and joy to the [Ātman] or Soul. Sages consider that the recitation of these syllables is sound therapy for the body and nectar for the soul. The nature of the mantra is the calling upon the higher self; it is the calling upon shiva, the destroyer deity, to aid in the death (destruction of ego) and rebirth achieved during meditation. This goes generally for mantras and chants to different gods, which are different aspects of the higher self.

Pada: foot, a section of a literary work

Padma: a nerve center.

Padmasana: the classical seated cross legs lotus posture

Pingala: right nostril; also, anything conducting a positive electrical current in the human body.

Pancha makara: the five indulgent tantric practices of mansa (meat), madhya(wine), matsya (fish), mudra(grain), and maithuna (sexual copulation)

Pancha tattwa: the five elements; earth, water, fire, air and ether

Prarabdha: that portion of one's past karma which is responsible for their present body

Param: the highest or supreme.

Paramatma: the supreme atma or God

Parichaya: avastha stage of perception of nada

Paschimottanasana: back stretching pose

Patanjali: author of the Yoga Sutras and preacher of the eight-fold (ashtanga) yoga

Payaswini nadi: energy channel terminating at the right big toe, between poosha and pingala channels.

PIE or P.I.E: Proto Indian European (language) implying an ancient Proto Indian European language now forgotten.

Pingala nadi: one of the main energy channels running on the right side of the spine from the mooladhara (base) chakra to the ajna chakra in the head by intersecting the chakras.

Plavini pranayama: breathing technique which involves gulping air and swallowing it into the stomach and retaining it.

Poornima: night of the full moon.

Prana: life; vitality; breath; infinite, the omnipresent energy of the universe. Veda describes how within the body there are five vital breaths known as "Vayus". The first is "prana" which means "forward ( pra ) breath ( ana )" it enters the body through the mouth and the nostrils distributing life giving energy to the cells of the body

Pranayama: regulation of the respiratory movements as a means to control the vital forces.

Prakamya: power of having all wishes, of whatever description, realized.

Prakamya: fulfillment of desire

Prakasha: inner light

Prakriti प्रकृति : nature

Pramana: proof

Prapti: power of reaching anywhere, even to the moon.

Puraka: inhalation.

Purusa: soul.

Puruṣaḥ पुरु षः man.

Puruṣāḥ पुरु षाः men.

Pranayama: techniques of breathing and breath control and regulating energy flow.

Prasad: an offering usually food to and from the guru or higher power

Pratyahara sense withdrawal; first stage of concentrating on the mind during meditation

Pratibha: intuition.

Pratyahara: restraining or withholding the senses or introspection.

Pravritti: that which elevates us materially is called "pravritti" the "pra" means "forward" "before" "forth" it becomes the English "pro" as seen in words such as "progress" "proceed" "produce" "promote" ect. The second part of the word is "vritti" from the root "vrt" meaning to "turn" and this becomes the English "vert" meaning to "turn". This is seen in words such as "invert" meaning "to turn inwards" and "divert" meaning "to turn in a different direction" and "revert" meaning "to turn back to how it was". Other words are "subvert" "convert" "pervert" "introvert" "extravert" all reflecting this Sanskrit "vrt" meaning to "turn".  ~ James Robinson Cooper

Prithvi tattwa: the earth element

Puja: a cycle of worship

Puranas: eighteen ancient books consisting of legends and mythological narrations dealing with creation, recreation and the genealogies of sages and rulers.

Puraka: inhalation.

Purusha: pure consciousness. "Purusa" means "person" "human being" its primal meaning however, is "Pura" meaning "before" and "Isa" meaning "Lord" as in "the Lord who stands before everything" he's the background upon which everything takes place. The "Purusa" is the Supreme being, who forms the background to everything, its that which is before ( pura ) that which is in front ( pura ) and that which is first ( pura ), the ultimate reality which stands "before" everything. ~ JRC

Purushartha: purpose in consciousness, of man's existence, the four basic needs or desires, arth, kaama, dharma, moksha


Raja Yoga: a more intellectual approach to Yoga.

Rajas: activity and passion

Rakta bindu: red bindu, same as beeja(seed) bindu, shakti bindu; the potentially creative bindu from which creation springs; often refers to the ovum.

Rechaka: exhalation.

Rudra: Lord Shiva or Rudra is said to have sprung from Brahma's forehead and is one of the holy trinity


Sahasrara chakra: highest energy centre located at the crown of the head also know as Sahasradala: brain (literally, "the thousand-petaled lotus").

Sakshi: witness

Samadhi: a goal of yoga, perfect unity in superconsciousness. Break it down and it means saamand dhi - sama meaning equanimity and dhi meaning buddhi or the intellect.

Samatva: freedom from emotion.

Samskara: the impressions/illusions stored in the mind from our social/collective karma that form the basis of our beliefs, attitudes and personality.

Samyama: contemplation, absorption, trance; a way to several occult powers which conducts the Yogi to conscious samadhi.

Sankalpa: one's spiritual resolve.

Sankya Yoga: Yoga of the mind.

Sannyasi, sannyasin, one who has renounced the world in seek of self-realization.

Santosha: ayoga ethic relating to contentment.

Saraswati Goddess who bestows knowledge of fine arts and power of speech

Sarvangasana: shoulderstand - an inverted posture

Sanskari - Cultural

Sat: truth

Satguru guru: who has attained self-realization

Sattwa guna: quality unwavering purity.

Sattva:  the breaking of boundaries, dissolution, melting and merging

Satya: a yoga ethic relating to truth.

Seetkari pranayama Breathing technique which involves hissing leading to a cooling effect upon the whole body.

Shabda Brahman cosmic causal state.

Shakti: vital force or energy perhaps equating to prana.
Shakti is energy. Shakti is power. Shakti is consciousness in action. Shakti is the feminine principle which is at the core of every living thing.

Shiva and Shakti are actual Hindu deities. Shakti is the personification of the Divine Mother, while Shiva is the Supreme Godhead, Lord of ultimate reality. However, the name Shakti can refer to any woman and the name Shiva to any man. They are the highest masculine and highest feminine within us. When our inner Shiva & Shakti are in balance, harmony exists within us, the universe becomes our lover, and we cease to feel loneliness or longing. Instead, only complete oneness exits!

Shaktipat: transmission of spiritual energy usually given by a guru.

Shambhavi mudra: a yoga gesture in which one focusses at the mid-eyebrow centre.

Shambol: one of the many names of Lord Siva.  It means abode of Joy. Sometimes written as Shambo.

Shashankasana: moon pose.

Shatkarma: the six yogic techniques of purification of the body, viz. neti, dhauti, nauli, basti, trataka, kapalbhati.

Sheetali pranayama: cooling breath' - a pranayama technique that lowers the body temperature by inhaling through the mouth while letting the breath flow in over the tongue.

Shishya: disciple or student.

Shiva: The Adiyoi or first yogi who is recorded as the first person to describe the technology of being human and how to master that technology as in describing the art of yoga.

Siddha: a master of Yoga.

Siddha yoni: asana the female counterpart performing siddhasana in which the left heel presses the entrance to the vagina.

Siddhasana: a meditative seating posture in which the left heel presses the perineum (stimulating the mooladhara chakra); also called as the adept's pose or the 'pose of perfection'.

Siddhi: one of several miraculous powers.

Sirshasana: the 'headstand' pose.

Siv or Shiv: The essence or no-thingness from which creation was manifest not to be confused with Shiva the first yogi. Shiva and Shakti principle: wherever the linga and yoni are presented, it is the inside of the womb that you are seeing. That is why the female part, the avudaiyar, is at the base and the linga is inside. When you enter the Dhyanalinga space, you are inside the womb and the linga is inside the womb - that is how it is shown.

Soham: represents a mantra in meditation; literally means, 'I am That'. Represents the Psychic sound with the sound 'so' during inhalation and 'ham' during exhalation..

Soma chakra: sixteen petalled chakra situated above ajna and manas chakras.

Stilhi: state in which the mind is at a standstill.

Sukhasana: easy cross-legged pose.

Sunyaka: suspension of the breath.

Susumna: spinal cord.

Sutras: writings of a sage.

Surya: sun.

Surya bheda: pranayama breathing technique in which inhalation is done through the right nostril ; increases vitality

Surya nadi: see 'pingala nadi'.

Sushumna nadi: main energy channel in yoga, in the centre of the spinal cord through which kundalini shakti flows.

Sutras: writings of a sage

Sutra neti: yogic technique to cleanse the nasal passages using a special cotton thread.

Swadhisthana chakra: second chakra in the spinal column, above the mooladhara.

Swastikasana: a posture similar to siddhasana

Some of the many words for sword:

खङ्ग m. khaGga sword
कृपाण m. kRpANa sword
आरी f. ArI small sword
असिधारा f. asidhArA edge of a sword
पालिका f. pAlikA edge of a sword
खङ्गकृष्टृ m. khaGgakRSTR one who has drawn out his sword
आसङ्ग adj. AsaGga sword
स्वाति f. svAti sword
शक्ति f. zakti sword
जयश्री m. jayazrI sword
धर m. dhara sword
तमाल m. tamAla sword
अक्षर m. akSara sword
चन्द्रभास m. candrabhAsa sword
कराल m. karAla sword
रिष्टि m. riSTi sword
पुष्करिन् m. puSkarin sword
करण्ड m. karaNDa sword
तीक्ष्णमार्ग m. tIkSNamArga sword
निस्त्रिंश m. nistriMza sword
जीर m. jIra sword
वक्रखड्ग m. vakrakhaDga sword
खड्ग m. khaDga sword
कौक्षेय m. kaukSeya sword
धाराङ्ग m. dhArAGga sword
करवाल m. karavAla sword
मनुज्येष्ठ m. manujyeSTha sword
शिरि m. ziri sword
टङ्क m. TaGka sword
निकर्तु m. nikartu sword
करालिक m. karAlika sword
दृढमुष्टि m. dRDhamuSTi sword
असि m. asi sword
भद्रात्मज m. bhadrAtmaja sword
करपाल m. karapAla sword
असि m. asi sword
वक्रखड्गक m. vakrakhaDgaka sword
खुड m. khuDa sword
कौक्षेयक m. kaukSeyaka sword
धाराधर m. dhArAdhara sword
सस्यक m. sasyaka sword
शिवङ्कर m. zivaGkara sword
खड m. khaDa sword
व्यवहार m. vyavahAra sword
कर्कश m. karkaza sword
देव m. deva sword
भिदक m. bhidaka sword
ऋष्टि m. RSTi sword
धाराविष m. dhArAviSa sword
सायक m. sAyaka sword
करवीर m. karavIra sword
पारेरक m. pAreraka sword
कडितुल m. kaDitula sword
तीक्ष्णधार m. tIkSNadhAra sword
छिदिर m. chidira sword
टङ्क m. TaGka sword
निषङ्ग m. niSaGga sword
कृपाणक m. kRpANaka sword
कोशवत् m. kozavat sword
विषाग्रज m. viSAgraja sword
करवीरक m. karavIraka sword
रिष्ट m. riSTa sword
तीक्ष्णकर्मन् m. tIkSNakarman sword
टङ्ग m.n. TaGga sword
टङ्ग m.n. TaGga sword
शस्त्र n. zastra sword
रणाङ्ग n. raNAGga sword
द्रुण n. druNa sword
तलिम n. talima sword


Tadasana:  tree pose within yogasana.

Tamas: the quality of inertia, laziness or procrastination.

Tantra:  A rite or ritual within yoga

Tejas: the fire element of the body which can be "burnt out" with excessive drug use or cigarette smoking

Tiryaka bhujangasana: twisting cobra pose.

Tiryaka tadasana: swaying palm tree pose.

Trataka: a shatkarma technique in which the gaze is focussed upon an object such as a candle flame.


Uddiyana bandha: an energy lock performed by drawing in of the abdomen towards the backbone after exhaling.

Ujjayi pranayama: a uniform breathing technique.

Upandishads: literally "secret teachings" the last portion of the Vedas ( ancient Indian texts)

Utkatasana: squatting position.

Uttankoormasana: tortoise pose


Vajrasana: the 'thunderbolt' pose or sitting on your heels.

Vama swara: the flow of breath in the left nostril.

Vaman dhauti: a technique to cleanse the stomach by voluntary vomiting.

Varisara dhauti: a cleansing technique in which a large quantity of water is drunk in conjunction with asanas to cleanse the entire digestive tract; also known as shankhaprakshalana.

Vastra dhauti: a detoxification technique in which a specially prepared cloth is swallowed and removed after ten minutes, in order to remove mucus from the stomach

Vasvita: power to command all.

Vatsara dhauti a cleansing technique in which the air swallowed into the stomach is belched out.

Vedas:  The oldest books in the world, these four books consisting of the Rig veda, Yajur veda, Sama veda, Atharva veda, are further divided into Samhita, Brahmana, Aranayaka and Upanishads. They were revealed to the sages and saints of India which explain and regulate every aspect of life from supreme reality to worldly affairs.

Vyakta: that which is perceived, sensible, discrete.

Vayu tattwa: the element of air.

Veerasana:  hero pose, sitting between feet with knees together.

Vishuddhi chakra one of the energy centres located in the spine behind the throat and connected with the cervical plexus, tonsils and thyroid gland.

Viveka: discerning as being able to recognise truth from fiction


Yab-Yum: a sitting meditation position in which the woman sits on man's lap facing him; so the chakaras are aligned, unison or alternate breathing can accompany this posture, also known as yugananda

Yama: a yoga ethic relating to harmlessness.

Yamuna: a river emanating from Yamnotri in the Himalayas and joining Ganga near Allahabd, North India which serves as a metapho for the pingala nadi in the pranic body.

Yantra: mystic geometrical diagrams used for meditation

Yoga: unity of all. More often referred to as a process of uniting the opposing forces in the body and mind in order to achieve supreme awareness and enlightenment.

Yogasana and Yoga Asana - the physical exercises within Hatha Yoga and Ashtanga Yoga

Yoga abhyasa: practice of yoga.

Yoga nidra: deep relaxation.

Yogi: a male practitioner of Yoga.

Yogini: a female practitioner of Yoga.

Yogin: a rarely used term for any practitioner of Yoga

Yogic: any practise or study relating to yoga.

Yojana: a standard length of measure is described in Ramayana, Mahabharata, Vishnupurana and innumerable land records as 1 Yojana=12.2 kms. But British set 1 Yojana=5 miles to confuse people and confiscate land.

Yoni: many think this equates to  vagina, however there is no word for vagina in Sanskrit. The word yoni describes a womb but most people are only concerned with the vagina.


An understanding of Axial Precession whereby our Earth is thought by science to essentially wobble on it's axis due to gravitational forces and the slowing of Earth's rotation speed.  It has been measured by the Earth's position in regard to the astrological constellations.  The historic Indian view is that our solar system is orbiting another unknown body in space and a complete orbit is called a yuga. 

Matching the astrological/astronomical cycle in overall time, a yuga is a period of 25960 years.  The object the our solar system orbits has a gravitation effect similar to that of our moon. As we near this spacial body, human capacity increases. A yuga is divided from where we are now in the Dwapara Yuga with about 70 years to the Tetra Yuga which will last 3888 years.  There are then two periods of Sat Yuga (5184 years) which represent the ideal conditions for human understanding and action.

The Sat Yuga is a 10,000+ year time where humans are as gods and lifespan may well increase. The cycle continues/ descends through another Tetra Yuga, Another Dwapara Yuga and a combined Kali Yuga periods of 2592 years followed by the ascending Dwapara and where we are now. Yugas Explained and History by the Yuga Cycle.

Living Wisdom
A Better World
Nature of Suffering
Cause of Suffering
Dharma or Adharma
Possible Extinction
Price of progress

A Sanskrit Glossary

The Amazing
History of India

Amazing India



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