Tracing the origins of beliefs and knowledge
Hindu understanding of the cosmos and the Hindu prescription for shaping
civilisation according to the
(of Sanatana Dharma) was as strong in Vietnam as in Cambodia and most of what we
know today as South East Asia. Hinduism spread not by the sword as the Abrahamic
belief systems that came later, but by words of wisdom, improved heath care and
on the coast of Annam, was another Indianized state, about which more
information is available. It constantly clashed with the nearby Chinese colonies
established in Tonkin during the Han period, and hence Chinese historians
frequently refer to Champa.
The name Champa is clearly Indian whether it was named after the capital of the
Anga country in the lower Ganges Valley, or after the Chola capital of the same
name. Situated on the main sea routes from India and Java to China, and at the
foot of spice-bearing mountains, Champa soon attracted the attention of Indian
traders, and played a significant role in spreading Indian culture in eastern
Asia. Sri Mara was the first Hindu king of Champa, and established his dynasty
about 200 over an extensive area, including Tonkin and part of northern Annam.
Image from Wikimedia Commons
The Kingdom of Champa in Vietnam, which flourished from the second to the 15th
centuries, was strongly influenced by Hinduism. Hindu temples were constructed,
Sanskrit was used as a sacred language, Indian art was idolized and Hindu
Deities, especially Siva, were worshiped. In fact, Lord Siva was regarded as the
founder and protector of the Champa dynasties. It first appeared around
present-day Danang and later by 8th century spread south to what is now Nha
Trang and Phan Rang. The Cham adopted Hinduism, employed Sanskrit as a sacred
language and borrowed heavily from Indian art.
One of the most stunning sights in Hoi An area is My Son, Vietnam's most
important Cham site. During the centuries when Tra Kieu (then known as Simhapura)
served as the political capital of Champa. Dong Dong (then known as Indrapura)
served as the Cham's religious centre. Recent excavations in Tra-Kieu, the most
ancient capital of Champa, have revealed ample evidence of Indian influence in
the form of Sivaite and Vaisnavite shrines and bas-reliefs.
The earliest inscriptions found in the region and possibly the whole of
Southeast Asia, is the Vo-canh inscription written in a South Indian script and
dating from the second or third century. Vo Canh inscription near Nha Trang, is
the oldest evidence in the whole Indochina peninsula for the use of Sanskrit. It
dates from the 3rd/4th centuries. All the evidence seems to point to a process
of Indianization beginning on the southern shores and gradually spreading
north-wards up to frontiers of the province near Chin. The most ancient bronze
statue found in Champa is that of the Buddha of Dongduong which is one of the
most beautiful specimens of Amaravati art; even a principality in that area was
called Amaravati. Inscriptions of Kind Bhadravarman, both in Sanskrit and Cham,
have been found; they belong to about 350 and are the earliest inscriptions
found in Champa proper.
Champa was formed in AD 192, during the breakup of the Han dynasty of China.
Although the territory was at first inhabited mainly by wild tribes involved in
incessant struggles with the Chinese colonies in Tonkin, it gradually came under
Indian cultural influence, evolving into a decentralized country composed of
four small states, named after regions of India, Amaravati (Quang Nam), Vijaya (Binh
Dinh), Kauthara (Nha Trang), and Panduranga (Phan Rang). The four states had a
powerful fleet that was used for commerce and for piracy.
The Cham people, of Malayo-Polynesian stock and Indianized culture, were finally
united under the rule of King Bhadravarman around 400AD. He was noted commander
and scholar. He dedicated a temple to Shiva at Mison which was called
Bhadresvarasvami and became the centre of royal worship in later centuries. It
is said that King Bhadravarman abdicated the throne to spend his last days on
the banks of the Ganges.
During this period, remarkable sculptures and original brick temples were
created which are notable for their decoration and ornamentation. The doorways
and pillars are adorned with an incredibly intricate stone foliation of leaves,
buds and flowers, inset with medallions of anchorites and celestial dancers.
These groups of temples, Mi-song, Po-nagar, and Dongduong, are very famous. In
the days of their splendor the Chams were Shivaites, and Shiva, his Sakti, and
his two sons, Ganesh and Skanda, were prominent amongst the gods worshipped.
Myson was the site of the most important Cham intellectual and religious centre,
and also may have served as a burial place for Cham monarchs. My Son is
considered to be Champa's counterpart to the grand cities of south-east Asia's
other Indian-influenced civilsations: Agkor (Cambodia), Bagan (Myanmar), Aythaya
(Thailand) and Borobudur (Java).
Myson was a centre for spirituality and worship during the reign of the Champa
Kingdom. The My Son Sanctuary, which exemplifies the height of Cham
architectural achievement, is a large complex of religious monuments originally
comprised of more than 70 structures; the vestiges of 25 of these structures
remain today. The builders of Myson were the nobility of the Champa Kingdom who
derived their cultural and spiritual influences almost exclusively from India.
The Cham people worshiped the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, although
Shiva was the central figure of worship for most people. Shiva was usually
portrayed in one of two forms: as the figure of a man, and very often in his
symbolic manifestation, the lingam, which was usually a stone embellished with
incisions placed on a stone slab. The lingam represented both Shivaism and the
divine authority Shiva bestowed upon the king. The Cham people erected
monumental towers - the main component of Cham architectural design - to house
the lingam. My Son was once a veritable forest of towers, many of which were
destroyed by the ravages of time and war.
All of the Cham towers at Myson were built on square or rectangular foundations
and were comprised of three parts; the tower base representing the world of
humans, the tower body representing the world of spirits, and the tower head -
usually built in the shape of a lotus - representing the realm between the two
worlds. The structures were usually built of baked bricks and sandstone.
Most experts consider the main tower at My Son, dubbed A1 by archaeologists and
researchers, a masterpiece of Cham architecture. Originally it spanned three
storeys and reached a height of 24 metres. Inside, the walls were covered with
reliefs; across from the entrance were relief's depicting a dancing Shiva, on
the first storey images of dancing females, and on the upper storeys elephants
and lions were depicted. The tower is surrounded by six smaller towers.
Unfortunately, tower A1 was severely damaged by US bombs in 1969. Apart from the
main tower devoted to Shiva, there are numerous smaller towers and temples
dedicated to the worship of lesser gods. For more refer to the Vietnam war.
This unique site is now in a state of significant disrepair. The monuments are
covered with vegetation, which has grown unimpeded for years. Relics that have
not already been relocated or stolen are strewn about, and lie exposed to the
(source: India and World Civilization By D. P. Singhal Pan Macmillan Limited.
1993. part II p. 120 - 130). (Note: Recently an Ancient statue of Lord Vishnu
has been found in Russian town of the Volga region. For more refer to chapter on
A Short History Lesson
A Summary of Human History
Tracing Our Origins
Yugas and Precessions
History by the Yugas
Lord Shiva in the Bible
Lord Shiva in Arabia
Lord Shiva in Vietnam
Less Ancient Times
A Chronology of Hindu History
The Garden of Eden
The Fall from Paradise
The Great Flood
North West Bharat
It's Land and People
The Story of Omar
Why India Was Broken